One feature that philosophers have thought distinguishes the mental from the physical is the idea that the mental escapes natural scientific laws. Historically this position was developed by Immanuel Kant who wanted to maintain the necessity of scientific laws against Hume’s sceptical attack from the standpoint of empiricism while holding on to the essential moral freedom of human personality. More recently Donald Davison has argued that there are no unifying laws that cover both mental and physical events and further that there are no laws that relate mental events together. This is to say that the mental realm is without law (a-nomos). the issues arising from this discussion have as their religious background the nature-freedom ground-motive of humanism.

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