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Monday, August 15

  1. page Glossary of terms edited ... Entity - something that 'is,’ something that exists within our empirical reality. There is a d…
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    Entity - something that 'is,’ something that exists within our empirical reality. There is a distinction between entities and the properties of entities. A genuine entity functions in all 16 aspects of cosmic reality, whereas the properties of entities do not. (82) There are different kinds of entities: inanimate things, plants, lower animals, higher animals and humans.
    Epistemology - the philosophy of knowledge: the part of philosophy that tries to answer questions like: What is knowledge? How can we know that we know something? (5)
    ...
    underlies beliefs itand is supra-rational (8); it(8). It is not
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    reason, but faith is above
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    Faith is transcendent,transcendent: it surpasses
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    belongs to orour empirical world
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    but transcends our beliefs and emotions.them. (30)
    Foundational function - in tangible things this is usually the spatial function. (87)
    Functionalism - the absolutization of certain immanent functions. (107)
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    7:51 am
  2. page Glossary of terms edited Glossary of terms used in reformational philosophy — as used by Willem J. Ouweneel in Wisdom For Th…
    Glossary of terms used in reformational philosophy — as used by Willem J. Ouweneel in Wisdom For Thinkers
    CompliedCompiled by Steve
    Numbers in parentheses show where the concept is defined or discussed in Ouweneel’s Wisdom for Thinkers (Paideia Press, 2014). Where possible the wording is Ouweneel’s. The numbers in parentheses indicate where the term is discussed.
    Absolutising - making an aspect of reality absolute, making it the one and only thing to which all other things can be reduced. (47)
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Thursday, March 31

  1. page Modal aspects edited ... Moral Faith ... the world that than is usually usual in philosophy ... all that ex…
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    Moral
    Faith
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    the world thatthan is usuallyusual in philosophy
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    all that exists reformationalexists, Reformational philosophy liberates
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    point of meaningmeaning, Reformational philosophy
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    the rich meaningdiversity of created
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    to understand reality, thisreality. This means that
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    aspects indicates this, examples are:this - for example: “aspects of
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    “modes of being”,being” and “modes of
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    of concepts is both is part of and also reflects the
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    indicated by DooyeweerdDooyeweerd, there is
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    the concrete “what”'what' of things
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    they exist, theretheir ‘mode of
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    exists is indicated by the use ofrepresented with vertical columns.
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    these animals, institutions and other entities and institutions exist.
    To understand a bit more what this means we can look at how Dooyeweerd first came to articulate this understanding of diversity. Dooyeweerd was trained in jurisprudence and after completing his doctoral studies he began to investigate, in the 1920’s, the main currents of the philosophy of law. What he found was a number of theories that sought to explain law in terms of something other than law itself. Some claimed that law was based on ethics, others that it was the result of social relations, still others that law could be explained in terms of logic. Dooyeweerd was not satisfied with any of these solutions and instead started to develop his idea of irreducible diversity. Each mode is distinct and cannot be reduced to another mode.
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    First of allall, Dooyeweerd’s assessment
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    phenomena it studies, differentstudies. Different sciences can
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    different modal spheres.aspects. Therefore one
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    basic reality wasof the chosen aspect were not genuine.
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    mode reality fights back'fights back', leading to
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    Zeno’s paradoxes which go wrong
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    explain movement only in terms of space, orand eliminative materialism inbecomes incoherent through its claim
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    universal in character, thischaracter. This is important
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    as vertical linescolumns and modes as horizontal lines.rows. This helps
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    stretch across things horizontally.all kinds of things. The implication
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    function in allsuch modes as the sensitive and the modes?economic? It is
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    object and subjectsubject, such as with Descartesin Descartes' dualism. Here
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    of a reformationalReformational view is
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    When we analysisanalyse a tree
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    modes of being, howeverbeing. But we should
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    that we inevitably perceive and
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    the tree, we can admire the beautymake aesthetic judgements of the tree,its beauty or assessotherwise, and have some notion of its economic value.value (though not necessarily in monetary terms). The existence
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    perceiving and our logical functioning,functioning: while trees
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    perceive and reasonreason, they can
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    these the treestrees' object-functions.
    What

    What
    this shows
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    possible. My perceivingperceptive relation towards
    Related linksReformational philosophy
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Saturday, September 5

  1. page Glossary of terms edited Glossary of terms used in reformational philosophy — as used by Willem J. Ouweneel in Wisdom For T…
    Glossary of terms used in reformational philosophy — as used by Willem J. Ouweneel in Wisdom For Thinkers
    Complied by Steve Bishop
    Numbers in parentheses show where the concept is defined or discussed in Ouweneel’s Wisdom for Thinkers (Paideia Press, 2014). Where possible the wording is Ouweneel’s. The numbers in parentheses indicate where the term is discussed.
    Absolutising - making an aspect of reality absolute, making it the one and only thing to which all other things can be reduced. (47)
    Abstraction - there are (at least) three kinds of abstraction:
    Abstraction of the universal - the unique character of a phenomenon is disregarded in the search for what phenomena have in common so that general principles are formulated.
    Abstraction of the objective - personal feelings and prejudices are disregarded so that another investigator would in the same circumstances obtain the same results.
    Modal abstraction - every science has its own modal viewpoint from which it studies cosmic reality. (126)
    Anastatic - see Religious ground-motive.
    Analogies - these play an important role in the theory of modal aspects. All modal aspects are intertwined, because within each aspect we find analogies with all other aspects; e.g. strong feelings is an energetic analogy within the sensitive aspect. (73)
    Apostatic - see Religious ground-motive.
    Boundary - this is not to be taken in the spatial sense; the law is a boundary between God and the cosmos. The boundary also connects — the law could be called the connection point between God and cosmos. (74-75) Law as boundary emphasizes the uncreated aspect of the law; it is God’s own Word for creation - it is spoken not created. However, the law-side emphasizes the created aspect of the law.
    Culture - human action through which the potentialities of creation are unfolded (78). Culture is manipulated (handled, shaped) nature; it is nature as worked or processed by humanity. (84) It is the specific way in which the object-function of non-human entities have been opened up by humanity. (85)
    Direction - see Structure.
    Destination function - this indicates an entities destination or purpose of an entity within human life. (87)
    Encapisis - certain matter may be encapsulated within some other matter. There are several different forms of encapsis:
    symbiotic encapsis e.g. the yucca plant and the yucca moth
    correlative encapsis e.g. a living being and its habitat, or between church and state
    subject-object encapsis e.g. a snail and its shell, or the spider and its web.
    Entity - something that 'is,’ something that exists within our empirical reality. There is a distinction between entities and the properties of entities. A genuine entity functions in all 16 aspects of cosmic reality, whereas the properties of entities do not. (82) There are different kinds of entities: inanimate things, plants, lower animals, higher animals and humans.
    Epistemology - the philosophy of knowledge: the part of philosophy that tries to answer questions like: What is knowledge? How can we know that we know something? (5)
    Faith - this underlies beliefs it is supra-rational (8); it is not non-rational, or even irrational; faith is not necessarily against reason, but faith is above reason (9). It always possesses a religious nature (10). Faith is transcendent, it surpasses everything that belongs to or empirical world (reason and feelings are immanent). It can be expressed in beliefs and emotions but transcends our beliefs and emotions. (30)
    Foundational function - in tangible things this is usually the spatial function. (87)
    Functionalism - the absolutization of certain immanent functions. (107)
    Heart – this is a metaphor for our innermost being, our ego, our personality centre. (30)
    Idionomy - this term (first suggested by P. Verburg) is used for Dooyeweerd's ‘individuality structure.’ The idionomy is a kind of law that makes e.g. all horses, not just your horse, to be horses. The idionomy of a certain entity is characterized by a certain specific modal aspect. Each will have a foundational function and a destination function. (87)
    Kernel – this is the essence of a modal aspect. A kernel is not ‘thing-like’ (71). The kernel of the arithmetical aspect is number; of the spatial is extended form; of the kinematic is motion.
    Law - see Boundary.
    Law-side - see Ordered world.
    Law-spheres - all things within cosmic reality are subject to the laws that the Creator has instituted for them. (59)
    Modal aspects or modalities of reality. There are sixteen of them: arithmetical, spatial, kinematic, energetic, biotic, perceptive, sensitive, logical, formative, lingual, social, economic, aesthetic, juridicial, ethical and pistic. Modal aspects are not phenomena but always only aspects of phenomena; they are not concrete things or states. (51) Each modal aspect has a kernel. Sometimes described as law-spheres.
    Nature - the parts of cosmic reality that are unspoiled and pristine, i.e. unaffected by humanity (84).
    Natural laws (and norms) - natural laws tell us what is, norms tell us what ought to be. (61) Laws cannot be disobeyed whereas norms can be disobeyed.
    Norms - see Natural laws.
    Objects - see Subjects.
    Ordered world and World order - the ordered world is made up of facts and is on the factual side or subject-side; the world order is made up of laws and is on the law-side of reality. (60)
    Ontology - the philosophy of all things that are, or simply, of all things that exist, the philosophy of the whole of cosmic reality. (5)
    Qualifying function - this indicates the 'quality,’ it is the highest subject-function of the entity. (87)
    Philosophy - the foundational science; ‘the science of sciences.’ (6)
    Reason – this is never autonomous as it is directed by the heart. (31).
    Religion - the confidence humans have in Someone or something as a kind of Ultimate Ground. This Someone or something functions as a kind of general, foundational principle from which the whole of reality can be explained. (11)
    Religious ground-motives - the deepest motives that drive our hearts, and are therefore of a religious nature. They can be of two sorts: anastatic (from the redeemed heart) and apostatic (from the sinful, unregenerate heart; of which there are three types: matter-form; nature- grace; and nature-freedom). (35)
    Science - theoretical knowledge. (17)
    Special sciences – these are scientific disciplines (e.g. geometry) interested in the whole of reality but only from a certain aspect or angle (e.g. the spatial). (45)
    Spiritive (a term coined by Ouweneel) for the analytical, historical, lingual, social, economic, aesthetic, mural, ethical and pistic modal aspects. (41)
    Structure and Direction - Structure deals with the creational structures and the laws God has instituted for the various creatures and cosmic modalities. Direction is a dimension that is, so to speak, perpendicular to that of structure; it involves the directness of any entity, event or state of affairs. There are only two directions: either towards the Creator or an apostate one away from the Creator. (76-77)
    Subject and object - these tell us about the ways things function within reality. (65). Plants are subject to all the modal laws in the biotic and lower. They are objects in all the modal aspects above the biotic. Humans are subject to all modal laws, they function as subjects, or have subject functions in all modal aspects. (66) Plants function as objects in the modal aspects higher than the biotic. (67)
    All things function in all modal aspects either with subject-functions or object-functions. (68) Object functions are not always activated.
    Subject-side (or factual side)- see Ordered world.
    Supra-rational – transcends, rises above the rational. (8) It is distinct from the rational and the irrational.
    Time - created, time and the created cosmos belong together, and the modal aspects are aspects of the temporal cosmos. (54).
    Typical-function - this is associated with natural things when they are culturally manipulated. In cultural entities this will always be the formative function (88)
    World order - see Ordered world.
    Worldview - a (frequently un-articulated) set of ideas and principles concerning the world in which we live, the nature, the origin, the purpose (or lack of purpose) of this world. (7)

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    10:24 am

Thursday, September 3

Friday, August 16

  1. page Index of topics edited ... List of all topic pages A New Heaven and a New EarthAnomalousness of the mindBehaviourism Ca…
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    List of all topic pages
    A New Heaven and a New EarthAnomalousness of the mindBehaviourism
    Cartesian dualismDescartesdualismCultural MandateDescartes arguments for
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  2. page Cultural Mandate edited ... Reference Wolters, Albert “The Foundational Command: ‘Subdue the Earth!” Related Links Ref…
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    Reference
    Wolters, Albert “The Foundational Command: ‘Subdue the Earth!”
    Related Links
    Reformational worldview

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  3. page Reformational worldview edited ... Topics A New Heaven and a New Earth Cultural Mandate Immortality of the Soul (Old Testame…
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    Topics
    A New Heaven and a New Earth
    Cultural Mandate
    Immortality of the Soul (Old Testament)
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  4. page Cultural Mandate edited In Genesis 1:28 we get God’s first command given to the first man and woman. It reads “Be fruitful…
    In Genesis 1:28 we get God’s first command given to the first man and woman. It reads “Be fruitful and multiply and fill the earth, and subdue it”. It is quite remarkable how unknown this command is amongst Christians; but seen in context it is difficult to overestimate its importance.
    This command comes as the climax of the account of creation given in Genesis 1. God creates “the heavens and the earth”, then, over six days, God’s creation gets formed and filled before God rests on the seventh day. Just before the seventh day we reach the end point of God’s creative activity with the creation of humankind made in the image of God. Here is what it says (Genesis 1:26-28):
    Then God said, “Let us make mankind in our image, in our likeness, so that they may rule over the fish in the sea and the birds in the sky, over the livestock and all the wild animals, and over all the creatures that move along the ground.”
    So God created mankind in his own image,
    in the image of God he created them;
    male and female he created them.
    God blessed them and said to them, “Be fruitful and increase in number; fill the earth and subdue it. Rule over the fish in the sea and the birds in the sky and over every living creature that moves on the ground.”
    Whereas before God commands things into existence, “let there be…”. Now we are told that God first formulates a plan (v.26) and then carries it out (v.28). God’s purpose in making creatures in his own image is that they continue his work of filling and forming creation. Just as God forms and fills the earth so we are commanded to fill the earth and subdue it, i.e. form it. This forming is about the development of the potential God has laid within creation. It is about human development. It is about human culture and society. There is a close connection between being made in the image of God and the command to shape creation, to develop human culture and society. This means that politics, business, art, science, technology, urban development and so on are fundamentally part of who we are as religious creatures responding, in obedience and disobedience, to our Creator. Filling the earth is also about culture and not just procreation. The earth needs symphonies, poems, houses, bicycles, books, canoes, toys, footballs, pencil cases etc.
    God as creator is the sovereign Lord over the works of his hand. So human too, in a derived sense are to be lords over creation. The connection is clear: “Let us make man in our image … and let them have dominion”. This dominion is about filling and forming in the context of serving God and caring for his world. Dominion is not domination.
    Now, this fundamentally positive attitude towards human culture is made somewhat more complicated given the reality of the fall and the consequent effect of sin in human life. But the cultural mandate still stands. We can see this through Genesis. We are told how each generation responded, often in enmity against God, to this command. So we learn that Abel was a sheepherder and Cain a farmer. We get explicit mention of the sons of Lamech who made advances in technology and music. The human task of cultural development continues after the fall even if often in a disobedient direction. The story of Babel is a prime example. On the one hand we have the refusal to spread out and fill the earth and on the other hand specific mention is made of the invention of brick-making which made city-building possible. And even into the much bigger picture of the Bible as a whole we see that what begins in a garden, ends in a city, the new Jerusalem. So we should not confuse urban development only with increasing sin, though that too is part of the story, but also see that the city is part of God’s good purpose for creation.
    One more point is in order here because we should notice that the final act of creation is also the first moment of Divine revelation. God’s communication with his image bearers starts here. Once we see this we can hardly miss the truly momentous character of the cultural mandate. Having spoken briefly and in the third person “Let there be light … let there be a firmament” on the sixth day God begins to address us personally, expressing himself in terms that we can understand and to which we can and must respond. At this moment in the climax of creation God Almighty enters into communication with flesh-and-blood people, and God gives us the first command that defines who we are: “Fill the earth and subdue it!”
    As the psalmist puts it “The highest heavens belong to the Lord, but the earth he has given to the human race.” (Psalm 115:16). Psalm 8 also reaffirms the human task and responsibility in the same terms as Genesis 1. See especially verses 4-6:
    what is mankind that you are mindful of them,
    human beings that you care for them?
    You have made them a little lower than the angels
    and crowned them with glory and honor.
    You made them rulers over the works of your hands;
    you put everything under their feet
    Reference
    Wolters, Albert “The Foundational Command: ‘Subdue the Earth!”

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